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Style Guides

Each discipline has a preferred style of formatting. Ask your instructor which style he or she prefers. Each style is usually referred to by its initials. For example:

  • MLA Modern Language Association Style is often used in the arts and humanities;

  • APA American Psychological Association Style is often used in economics, psychology, and political science;

  • CMS Chicago Manual of Style is often used in architecture, history, and urban planning;

  • CBE Council of Science Editors Style is often used in biology and other sciences.

For additional examples and information on citation see the Penn Library web site at http://gethelp.library.upenn.edu/PORT/documentation/documentation.html

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This guide has been adapted from one produced at MIT entitled Academic Integrity at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: A Handbook for Students. We are grateful for their permission to use and revise the work for students at the University of Pennsylvania.

Written by Patricia Brennecke, Lecturer in English Language Studies
Edited by Professor Margery Resnick, Chair of the Committee on Discipline, and Joanne Straggas, Office of the Dean for Undergraduate Education. Prepared with the support of Professor Robert P. Redwine, Dean for Undergraduate Education at MIT.

Adapted in Fall 2006 for use by graduate students at the University of Pennsylvania and published as the Handbook for Students, Ethics and Original Research by Professor Barbara Fuchs, Romance Languages, Dr. James B. Lok, Professor of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Linda Meiberg, graduate student and Karen Lawrence, Assistant Director of Education.

This edition edited, amended and produced by:

The University Honor Council and the
Office of Student Conduct
University of Pennsylvania
Fall 2008