In the 1960s Michael Lesk worked for the SMART project, writing much of their retrieval code and doing many of the retrieval experiments, and obtained a Ph.D. in chemical physics. In the 1970s he worked in the group that built Unix and wrote Unix tools for word processing (tbl, refer), compiling (lex), and networking (uucp). In the 1980s he worked on specific information systems applications, mostly with geography (a system for driving directions) and dictionaries (a system for disambiguating words in context), and ran a research group at Bellcore. And in the 1990s he has worked on a large chemical information system, the CORE project, with Cornell, OCLC, ACS and CAS. Michael Lesk is also Visiting Professor in computer science at University College London; is on the Visiting Committee for the Harvard University Library; and has worked with the Commission on Preservation and Access addressing digital preservation issues. He received the "Flame" award for lifetime achievement from Usenix in 1994 and is a Fellow of the ACM.