Higher Education in the Information Age

The Technological Future

Stephen Heibein


Gregory Farrington: Instead of having questions now, I thought we'd just proceed to our next speaker, Steve Heibein, who is from Silicon Graphics. Silicon Graphics made a major commitment to being an industry which leads the re-invention of education, and Steve Heibein has been responsible for their penetration into markets involving the Internet, telemedicine, distanced learning, and video servers. Now he notes that he has been with Silicon Graphics while Silicon Graphics has grown from a 20 million dollar company to a four billion dollar company. If that's his real secret, he'll have lots of people looking for his services by the end of this meeting. So it's a pleasure to have Steve Heibein.

Heibein: Thank you very much. What I want to do is move right ahead and start talking about some of the technology. And that's really what I am. I'm a technologist. And as Dr. Lucky had mentioned, things are changing. In fact, people are getting different careers. The things that you learned in college, you don't really remember those items. You remember the experience. I've gone through several different careers in that sense. I was an architect. I did solar design for awhile. I wrote some books on energy conservation. Now I'm a computer scientist. But what's happened is technology is really what's been pushing us along, and what's been pushing me.

What I want to do is talk about some of the technology trends in a couple areas, specifically, when I start looking at the graphics, what's happening with graphics. And a lot of people recognize Silicon Graphics because of our graphics background, but what's real important and the vision that was had by our founder, Jim Clark, a long time ago has now happened. It's become prolific. You now have 3-D. You can have it on the desktop. And in fact, if you look at the things you have in a Nintendo today, the type of graphic that's in there is what we had on a 150 thousand dollar computer just three years ago, and I'll get more into that.

What's going on with CPU's is also impressive, and I want to touch on those items and scalability, etc. [Aside: Can I move forward here?] If you sort of look at the trends in graphics, and I think what's kind of key for the educators to understand is what you can now do with it beyond-What is that next generation? What's the bleeding edge? What are the things that people are doing to try and get better insight? And I think that the real key that people always say, "Well, virtual reality." Well virtual reality is a buzz word. A lot of us would almost like it to go away, because what it conjures up is all these people with headgear and etc. But what we're trying to do is now use this so that people start having joint experiences.

If you start looking at what's going on at Stanford, they use an electronic light table that actually has a stereo image. So you're looking down at a model of a house or a village or something when you're trying to look at something from an urban planning sense. Or if you look at the type of graphics we can now do up top here, the realism. So now you can experience something that no longer exists: buildings that have since decayed or how it would have looked like before environmental changes-the ozone and different things-have happened to the walls. What we're doing is we're using this in different ways to be able to say, "What if?" Things that haven't been built yet. On the assembly line, what would that assembly line look like? Should it be built? What kind of room do we need? So now we're doing our designs, playing out our designs on the computer. And having more and more sophisticated graphics has allowed us to be able to see this in real time. It's no longer quite as cartoonish as it once was. You now have the ability to have things running at real time, to make changes, also interacting with those programs that you're saying, "O.K.., if this was to occur, this stimulus, what now happens on this production floor?"

Other things that you're seeing are when people say, "Well, I want to take large volumes of data-big data. I want to get an insight from that. I want to understand what's going on." And I mentioned this to somebody else, what we're trying to do now is mean time to insight. O.K..? How quickly can you understand something? How quickly can you mine a nugget of knowledge out of this information you have? We all have data, and the trouble with data is it's not enough. Information is not enough. The insight is where we're going to. You need to take that to the logical conclusion of being able to say, "O.K.., I want to see what's happening with this N variables," and see it in a way that's a little different.

Down the bottom you can see two examples of what a lot of companies have started doing. It's a concept of a visionarium. So somebody had mentioned earlier about video-conferencing. What we're seeing is, for instance, Ford Motors. What they did is they built visionariums on different parts of the world so that they could have designers in Detroit and in LA and in Japan and in Milan and in London all working together. And so what they're all looking at is the same wall. And what they do is they use a way to rotate and take a look at the car, so they can say, "O.K.., now that we're all looking at the same car, notice what happens with the flare on this hood." And they can say, "Ah, I see that," because they have a joint experience, and they're not wearing goggles, they're not wearing glasses. What they're basically doing is looking at that joint experience and that joint wall, and that's what they're using video conferencing for, because it's insight is what they're trying to get.

One thing that does get saved is not travel but generally it's the time that's lost going to and from something. So what happens is when you have an idea you can bring other people together quicker than trying to schedule everything. And that's probably one of the more powerful things.

Here's another example where people might have a vehicle and they want to have that experience of trying this vehicle out. And there's several different companies-in fact, that's probably the biggest uses that we've seen, whether it's flight simulators, auto simulators, or different types of equipment like that. Generally it's too expensive to have everybody actually go and experience something like that.

The same thing's happening now with the medical world. Right now most of it is to help train you and get you prepared for an operation, but not necessarily to do an operation. That's still pretty far off there, but if you look at what is going on, right now you'll see a physician, a surgeon sitting there and manipulating handles that the handles are part of the robotics that are actually doing the surgery and doing the cutting and doing the suturing. What's the difference of doing this in the same room, holding the handles, or being across the street or across the town or across the country?

What's been interesting is we're finding that the military has been very innovative in working with this because they are working under different circumstances than everybody else, and so what they'll do is they'll drive a HUM-V out into the field, do the surgery there, where the surgeon may actually be at a more fixed walled facility, so to speak.

Now we're seeing innovations coming in a lot of different ways. I mean this is actually, this part here is part of an ad, but it shows the Boeing 777. It says, "This is a 777." And down there it shows, "And this is the box it came in." You know, this little box down at the bottom. Basically the triple seven, Boeing designed that whole system without building a single prototype. In the past when they would build a prototype they would be off as much as a foot and a half from end to end on something like this. They didn't build a prototype. They did the whole thing electronically on a computer. And what was interesting is when they finally built the first one, with no prototype, it was off by a half inch. O.K.., that was the smallest tolerance they had ever run into, and what gave them the ability to do that is now they could visualize every component of this. And things that they hadn't thought of before were very powerful. They could actually go down the cable runs, and they could pretty much walk down like they were a mouse down there and see what was happening, what interference they were running into. Before they had to build a whole prototype, until they ran in and said "Ah! I got this duct work that interferes with there," because all these flat drawings don't help you with that. So you can see how this can help an aspect of it.

Another thing that was interesting is what's happening with Team New Zealand when they won the Americas Cup. We had worked with them on that, and we actually put a supercomputer on their dock because-remember the ENIAC would fill a room larger than this. Well, what we were able to do is now carry in, under our arm basically, a super computer. And every time they ran a race we were metering and monitoring what was going on, the flows around the keel and everything else, and took that back, plugged it back into the super computer, ran the test again, came out for the next day. We had two keels: one we would change every day. And we were able to get that mean time between insight, so-that was before we bought Cray, mind you. So we had beaten Cray. So Cray had this huge super computer that they couldn't bring to the dock, and so they had to do all their tests and everything three months earlier. We were able to do this three hours earlier, and that made a big difference for us.

One thing that I think is real important is this 10x every three years. If you basically look at what's going on with technology, every three years computers are either ten times faster for the same price or one tenth the cost for the same speed, either way you want to look at it. Well that makes things happen is now you go from something like this, a Cray super computer, to now you have a desk top computer with the same type of capabilities. Or let's put it this way: one tenth the price for the same capabilities. You also have a scaling in size. Well what we're doing is all vendors are basically pushing the technology down to the desk top. So what you used to have to do in a closed room, we're now making available for an individual student, for an individual researcher, for an individual department, where you used to have to have a whole university to be able to supply all their funds to be able to have the type of super computing power that you have.

Sort of to take that even one step further in the logical conclusion, we've basically taken what we sold as a literally about 150 thousand dollar 3-D graphics work station, is now available in a Nintendo. The Nintendo is under 150 dollars. So you go 150 thousand to 150 dollars. It's kind of interesting. And in fact, the two chips that are inside the Nintendo cost 35 dollars-Quantity One list for those chips. So if you start looking at what's happening with this, it's making technology more accessible. You don't see that quite yet, but you're going to be seeing this in the coming year with things that are going to be going on with Network computers.

Web TV, for instance, uses some of this same type of technology that's out there right now. It takes your TV and puts it into Web Browser. Well, what you're going to find now, taking the same 35 dollar chip set, merging it with a monitor, a keyboard, and a mouse, you now have something that you can start proliferating on everybody's desk top, using the Web technology to be able to get that information to them-get them access. And then some of the things that are going on in terms of incompatibility of software, what happens now is you don't really care what's on the other side. You're using the Web to get to all these legacy systems, all these systems that have the information on them, and you're just putting new interface on it and making that available. I think that's the real key of what's coming with 10x every three years.

If you don't recognize this, this is what we call a "rocket dog". A lot of people have been strapping 600 megahertz chips on PC Buses, and that's what I like to refer to as a "rocket dog". The problem is, you can get faster and faster and faster chips, which is really what's happening out there, but the trouble over time is you're now running into new band bottlenecks. Whether it's a Network bottleneck, whether it's the back plane, whether it's memory access, other things are now occurring. So new technology has to be evolving to overcome these problems, because obviously this rocket dog isn't going to make it for the long run.

Now, when you start looking at some of the things that are going on with connections, currently most everything you're running into is over here on this Bus Connects. You have one Bus, and even if you have multiple seat views, you're plugging them all into one bus, and you're sucking up bandwidth. So as I go, I'm adding more CPU's, but I'm not necessarily getting much faster. I'm not getting linear speed up. Well there's other interconnection technologies. Whether you do a one dimensional ring or whether you do some things with 2-D grids or 3-D grids, what basically happens is you've got to get more interconnection. As you go to the bottom right, what you see is this starts looking like something, right? Like the telephone company. Or a Network infrastructure. And that's really what you're going to see that computers are going to.

What we've actually ended up doing is the same type of thing. We've realized that we've got to go away from a Bus structure, and we're going now to Router technology. So what we do is every processor goes into some hub Router chips, and then as you grow it, you start having the hub chips connect up to other Router chips as you start growing and growing and growing. What happens here that's different is I go from having a whole bunch of these P-zero processors, and as I start adding processors, I start adding bandwidth. And that's what's key. So now I start getting more linear scaling, and I get to start dealing with those tougher problems. Those fundamental problems that I want to solve that before I didn't have enough CPU, I didn't have enough memory, I didn't have enough bandwidth, I can now start solving. And in fact in our case, we've done some things where we have three tiers. So finally we take those cubes and we connect them up and now we're into the hundreds and thousands of CPU's all interconnected. And I think that's really key where you'll see this is going on.

Several vendors have started in this area. What this does for you also in a software sense is, should memory systems are those-whether the unit processors or SMP type of architectures, those were easy to program. They're a simple programming paradigm. What happens, though, when you start growing a lot of times, people say, "We'll go with massively parallel architectures." And we've seen just from what's gone on in the marketplace, people found those are tough to program. They're challenging systems to program, and what happens is they've actually died in the marketplace because to get useful work out of them has been challenging. What we've tried to do here is make it so that you have a shared memory programming paradigm, so they're easy to program as you get these large systems, but they're also easy to scale. That's been key. Key benefit here.

Now, one of the things that's happening out here is we are going to be changing, and you're seeing that the Web and other technology has been changing the way we work. Basically there's shorter time to market, increased insight, better innovation. In fact, what's nice is when you have better technology at your fingertips I can now redesign three, four times in the design phase instead of later on when it's more costly after I've built the prototype. When I built the prototype, to go back and make a change is extremely costly. It takes a long time to sort of back that into all the other information. If I make multiple changes, test them in different scenarios early on, it gives me a lot of flexibility there.

What I want to do is I want to kick off from the lecture and really go into and show you a little bit of the technology itself and show you some of the things that are going on. I'm going to show you some Web-based training in some things that we've been doing. Inside Silicon Graphics, we have a huge intranet, and we've got just under a half a million URL's within our firewall. So this is for Silicon Graphics only. This is for our people to look at. We basically changed everything that we've done, whether it's our human resources, whether it happens I want to sign up for 401K, I want to change my dependencies, my medical, I want to look somebody up-all these things have changed. We've gone from where we finally decided, inside our company, about three years ago that it was time to make that fundamental change to be able to give everybody access, as was mentioned earlier.

What we've come up with is a couple things that we've done. One is called "Webucator", which allows us to basically do our Web training on the Net itself. So what I can do is go through here, and let me go through just a couple pages of giving you an example of what we've done. We've taken our education and made computer-based training, all Web-based. In this example here, for instance, if I want to talk about all the educational challenges and if I go into the paradigm shift, whether I'm giving a lecture or whether it's a student or somebody interested who wants to see the information here, well, as I pass over my cursor on top of it I've got a balloon there telling me what the paradigm shift-what's the important things about it. How it's easy, immediate access to multi-media content. Or I can go down here, talk about the older student, how many are returning to life-long education. Or same thing: new learning and teaching needs.

What's interesting now is if you look at this from a teaching technique. I can give it in lecture format, I can have it in the library, somebody can go through the lecture off-line, we can use it for distance learning. It goes back to the paradigm of saying, "Author once, deploy many." And so now I have different ways of doing it. I mean even if I want to talk about things like the Nintendo generation, right? Which if you look at the students that are coming on line, all of them are very, very comfortable with technology, and that's really what we've been able to provide here.

The thing that's important is looking at a way that you can say, "O.K., this isn't that different" when you start talking with professors, and that's usually the point when I first meet up with the professors. They all say, "Well, I don't know how to do Web pages." And you say, "Great. I hope you never write a Web page. You shouldn't ever have to write a Web page. If you're writing a Web page, then you're not doing what you're supposed to be doing. But didn't you write down your notes, your lecture notes, someplace? Don't you have something you're working off of?" "Oh, I did this in Power Point." "Great. Take your Power Point, and just take the Power Point-and right now there's so many different ways-there's tools out there that are external that will take a Power Point presentation, convert it to a Web page. Or now Microsoft will do that directly. Get it so you have it now: a sharable format."

I mean here's the thing that-I mean, again, using this presentation here. I mean we've seen this change coming, whether you started out in 1970-the whole centric aspect of things-and how we're moving on to new technology, the client-server that came out more in the 80's/90's. And if you look at some of the things that have gone on with visualization that I showed you earlier, combining that with the desk top, desk-centric aspect of it, basically you put all that together in a Network, and that's why the Worldwide Web makes so much sense. We didn't throw away our main frame computers. We just put another face on them. And I think that's what's been real key.

I'm going to actually pop down here to a quiz, too. This is another thing that we've been doing is working with education to say, "O.K., let's put our quizzes on-line." Whether that happens to be in an educational setting directly, in an institution of higher learning, or whether it's places like Marriot. I was working with Marriot, and they said, "We want to maintain everybody having the same quality, that same attitude about hospitality, and how can we do that?" And we said, "Well, with the Web. We can combine so there's a movie showing you the right way to welcome a guest, the right way to make a bed, and you've got a video-the right way to do-" Some of these things are very mundane, but what's nice is you can put it in a multi-lingual format and have it on the Web so that everybody can go through this, then do the test. And so they can, you know, "Down here's my test, and I can do all my checklists," and you know whatever. I click this and say submit query, and it gave me, I got zero out of five, so zero percent because I only filled in one and I did it wrong. To have that type of test, we're doing it so that it goes back into a database so you can actually follow the progress of a student or progress of an employee or the progress of somebody on the way, and it's a nice way to do the metric. It goes back to that self-enabling type of technology.

I want to show a different one. This is some training we did. We trained 11,000 employees in a three day period, and we basically took everybody in our entire company, brought them together, but electronically. We brought them together separately. How's that? A good way to put it. What we did was we had on-line these Web pages and everybody had a 800 number so they could call in. So they got their voice over the 800 number, they got the lecture materials-all the presentation materials-over the Web. And so they were able to say, "O.K. well, let's go and talk about our new product." Well, what was interesting is, for those people who missed that training, they could also get the lecture and the audio notes. So if I wanted to get speaker notes, I click on here, and it basically gives me the speaker notes, for each page, on a page by page basis. Or I could actually go for the audio notes themselves. And so what will happen is it will load in the audio for me for the lecture, so as I go from-

Audio Notes Example: I'm the product manager for Irex and ASD and the product manager for Cellular Irex. The announcement that is occurring now marks the advent of a new software architecture for scalability and large-

Heibein: O.K. And when I skip to another page, it brings me up to the next audio and starts talking about that. What's interesting is-

Audio Notes Example: Cellular Irex is aimed at realizing the biggest dreams in-

Heibein: O.K.. I'll turn that off. Well, you get the idea of what it basically goes into. Now, on-line, I've got the lecture that I may have missed. O.K.. All we did was record the voice. We did the very minimum amount of editing on that, basically chopping it up so it went with each slide, and that was about it. Down the bottom you'll see that query, where it says "Send query." Basically that was so that during that presentation we could type in and say, "Why did you call it Cellular Irex?" You know? Boom. O.K. "Oh, I see we get a couple notes." And what would happen is we had a chat system, and that would add to the chat. And so then the presenters would say, "Oh, I see, we have a couple questions about why we called it cellular Irex. Let me explain." It was very interactive, and we had, again, everything going-One way out voice, but everything coming back electronically. And it was like I said 11,000 employees in three days were done this way. Part of the reason for the three days, it was actually two days of material, and everybody was 8-hour shifted depending on what part of the world they were in, and so that's why it took three days to do that training. And it worked out quite well for us.

Some other things that I think are important is that what we've been doing is adding more and more and taking the technology, taking the 3-D, taking the Web, and putting them all together, merging all of these, and-we're going to load in cyber-anatomy. And we've been working with a lot of universities and med. schools, and there's been some information they always need to be able to share with the students, and you can't always have a cadaver. There we go. And sometimes it's nice to have something electronic that you can say, you know, like there is a lot of junk on the Net. What you want to do is you want to make sure this is information that you've provided.

And here this is going to combine Java, VRML, several different items here. What I can do is, if you'll look, I've got two balls that are blinking there, and I can sort of drive up towards this, get a little bit more into here. Let me turn off collision detection. Boom. There. O.K.. So up here you can see there are two balls, and if I click on this ball right here what it does is it evolves this human form out of the center there. So obviously it looks more like a crash dummy with all the checkerboard on it, but you sort of see what's going on there. Let me move up here so I can take a look. There you go.

Down on the bottom, what looks like a capsule, that sort of drives me to pre-computed locations so I can sort of take a look at this and say, "O.K. Well, what I want to do is I want to take this form, and I'm going to have it evolve one more level," and so now it's going to remove the skin for me, and you're going to see the bone, etc. What I can do is, now I've got-you sort of hear the breathing there? A little bit of heartbeat? Actually this is all 3-D audio, too. So what would happen is, if I pass behind it, it would sound different than if I'm in front of it. It actually takes advantage of the cranial mass to know how it should alter the audio for front, back, and right and left, etc.

Let me move a little closer here. There's the form. O.K. What I want to do-I'm going to move right over here, take this off. I think when you move your arm back like this it makes the bones go away. I think that's how that works. I didn't go to med. school, so I'm not sure. Now if I click on something-I can click on the lungs. Now what I'll get, I'll get something that's more of a picture on the right hand side. You know, more of a schematic, a drawing there, and so I can look for different information, look down here again. All of it's linked. So I'm going from the 3-D world to the 2-D world, all the different information. If I pull this away I think I've got-I want to get a little bit closer here. I can also take myself and say, "I want to be halfway between here and this point," and it takes me right to that item. There we go, that little beating heart. And click on the beating heart and away it goes.

What you can do though, the key is, this may not be the most sophisticated example in the world in terms of you could probably have a little bit more realistic looking heart and all, but I think the key is saying, "O.K., here's where they all work in relationship to each other. These are the parts. This is where they are in a 3-D world," and so I can move within there and so I can move with there and, like I said, go grab that information.

Another one that we've done is something similar to that where we did basically cyber-astronomy. With the cyber-astronomy, it's a way to be able to go through the cosmos and visit different planets and all, taking advantage of the same type of 3-D environment. And so what I can do again is look at it. You'll see it first brings up everything in a fairly crude form. Here's the paths of the planets. But as it's downloading, it gets more sophisticated for me, and so you'll see as that goes on there.

What's nice is I'm involved in it. I have the interaction. So what you're going to see that I can move this, I can manipulate it, go take the journey as I need to do the discovery. I think that's what's real powerful. So if I take that and rotate it from different points of view, whatever, or travel from one place to another-there's Pluto. Let me go a little bit closer. And so you can see Pluto a little bit on the dark side there. Neptune. If I click on Neptune, you all of a sudden see the information about Neptune in terms of different things: how many satellites it has, all the information about the rings. If I click on the satellites, it tells me about which satellites it has and so on and so forth. So I can find more information. If there's a body there going by, I can click on that body directly and say, "Oh, that's Triton. That's one of it's moons." So again, I get to do the self-discovery.

What I want to do is go right up to-there we go. Let's do the approach here. As I get closer-let's get over there to takeoff, get over to Saturn, because that's of course always one of the most dynamic looking ones. But there you can see is a field of stars and like the cloud of other satellites and things around Saturn, what make up its ring. Of course, as I go into it I can become more part of it. This is another way of looking at virtual reality: being able to do things that you couldn't normally do, which is real key.

One other thing that we've done, and this has been real powerful, we've been working with the military where what they say is, "O.K., we need to send out somebody who might not be trained on a certain piece of equipment. How do we take that person whose never been trained on it and basically have them go out in the field-and maybe it's a satellite down-link-how do I have them install this thing, point it in the right direction, and do everything?" What we've done is we're working with them on putting Web pages on a CD ROM-same type of thing you can do for distanced learning, right? Or for selling your educational materials to other universities and distributing this-well, here's the case where this is the computer I'm actually running off of, but if I go in here I can click on it. It brings me up and says basically, "O.K.. click here." So I click on that. You can see on the monitor there it's re-booting the system, an so we'll see it in a second. The light goes from orange here to green in a second as things start up. So what's nice is I say, "Ah, I understand that." And let me move around to a different side of this, and you can see the screen starts changing, etc.

I've also got a CD ROM here, and I can interact with that CD ROM. Insert it in, whatever. Pull it out, or say, "Well, let's take a look at that CD ROM. Is it the right one? Uht, there it is. There's my CD ROM." So the quality of what I'm doing with a Netscape Web Browser right now, it's there today. This is today's technology. It's not really as far into the future as many people think.

Let me cut down here and sort of show you, O.K., with that screen again, but right here there's this piece. Well, I want to insert everything and start making that go together. So I click this. Oh, it's the AV module. Now it's doing the assembly. I can do this either in a movie, which any of you who have done a M-peg movie on the Web, you know it's mega, mega, megabytes. Well, here we've got something that's hundreds of k-bites instead of megabytes, and that's been what's real key in terms of what we can do there. And that's why showing it 3-D, it's actually smaller data, because instead I've got the four corners of some item and then I just paste a picture to it. I don't have-I let the computer calculate the rest of that for me. And again, I can also turn this into transparent. So it's making it a little more transparent. So when I insert this, I'll be able to see where the power supply goes. And you basically get the idea. You know, this goes on here. This piece goes on here.

Whether I want to interact with everything-I might want to say, "Well, what's behind her?" Pull this module off. O.K.. And then I've got different parts I can look at. So let me get a little bit closer in here. And so I can see that this module, that's the memory. There's the display engine, and there's the CPU itself. So I can click through, and I can start understanding it a little bit more and say, "O.K.., well I want to insert this. Now what all happens?" Boom. That top comes back on, that goes there, and that all inserts. So, again, another example of what can be done. And I can turn this thing even more transparent, make the whole thing go away so just I see the modules. But again, the interactivity I think is what's important of what's available.

Timing-wise, I'm just about up with my time, so what I want to do is I want to finish my last two slides on here and go into my conclusion for you. Basically, when you see what's happening between the Worldwide Web, what you can do with visual computing and how it's now become affordable, high performance computing, the cost coming down, the availability coming down, so now whether it's on a departmental level or whether it's on an individual student level these things are now available. So this is the one thing is technology is not out of reach like it once was. The other thing is that things you saw are things that we're doing today. It's not something that, again, is futuristic. I'm working right now, and I've developed a distance learning architecture based on the Web. And there's actually a commercial company who sells education that's going to be using this architecture so that they'll be able to distribute it and deliver it right inside a corporation's firewall. And we're just using off the shelf technology.

The last thing I didn't mention large enough was just big data and real world problems. Today because systems-although Microsoft and Intelmate have just gone to 32 bit, a lot of the rest of the world is already gone to 64 bit, and why that's important is, when you start looking at very, very large problems, that's available today so that you can go in there and do the computation on that and be able to address more than four gigabits of data in a single structure. And that's been real key is what you get with 64 bit. We're doing some things right now with ten terabit single image databases. Ten terabits, single image. And that's incredible. A couple years ago-I mean well we couldn't have done it just three years ago, and in fact this will be the first one over ten terabits in a single image. So this is showing you what can be done today.

So in conclusion, I think there's a lot out there to be used. What I want to challenge you to do is take a look at this technology and ways that you can implement it inside your operation. I'm excited about it. I'm jazzed up. every time we've gone in and implemented something like this, people have usually taken to it. And those people who are fearful of the technology replacing them or doing whatever, instead it actually enabled them to have a more exciting job than they had before. And so they found out after their fear was over they were able to now say, "I now have got something new to be jazzed up about as an instructor, as an educator, as a student." And I think that's been real key. So thank you for your time.



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Last modified: 12 January 1998