LDI Alumni-Faculty Exchange
May 13, 2005
Distinguished policymakers and researchers identify examples of research that had an impact on health policy and reflect on the sorts of factors that influence the use of research findings.
Sean Clarke, PhD, RN, CRNP, CS
Francis Johnston, PhD
Flaura Winston, MD, PhD
Sandy Schwartz, MD
Sponsored by the Leonard
Davis Institute of Health Economics, The Wharton School, the Schools
of Medicine and Dental Medicine, the Nursing School, University of Pennsylvania,
Sean Clarke is Associate Director of Penns widely regarded Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research and is a Senior Fellow of the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics at Penn. In addition to serving on the Advisory Board for the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Sentinel Event Review, he is an adjunct faculty member at the Université de Montréal, the largest university school of nursing in the French-speaking world.
Dr. Clarke is Course Director for the fall sections of Advanced Clinical Practicum, Theory and Clinical, which are the final courses in the senior year of Penns BSN program. In addition to overseeing elective clinical placements and companion specialty seminars in N370/371, he runs a weekly lecture series which draws extensively on his and his colleagues' programs of research, introduces ideas about leadership and management in nursing and also deals with professional issues and legal, economic and political forces in health care. He says, New graduates dont have to be passive in relating to the healthcare system; if they understand research and trends, they can influence key decisions and perhaps become the leaders that reshape the system.
Dr. Clarke is particularly interested in the impact of nurse staffing and organizational climate in hospitals on mortality and other adverse events in patients, and on occupational health issues (such as sharps injuries) in nurses. His current projects involve the relationship of organizational climate to safety issues in Pennsylvania hospitals, how nurse staffing and work environments in hospitals affects patient outcomes when patient volume is taken into consideration, and differences in access to and quality of hospital care for different racial and ethnic groups.
Marjorie K. Jeffcoat, DMD, assumed the post of Dean of the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine on July 1. Dr. Jeffcoat is the first woman to hold the position and the eleventh dean in the School's 125-year history.
Dr. Jeffcoat comes to Penn Dental from the University of Alabama School of Dentistry, where she served as Assistant Dean of Research and Professor and Chair of the Department of Periodontics. While at Alabama, she was also a professor of biomedical engineering, held the James Rosen Endowed Chair of Dental Research, and served as interim chair for the Department of Oral Biology.
A member of the National Institutes of Health-NIDCR Advisory Committee for Research on Women's Health, Dr. Jeffcoat has also served on the editorial boards of a variety of professional research journals for more than 20 years, including her current position as editor-in-chief of the Journal of The American Dental Association.
"Dr. Jeffcoat's reputation as a clinical researcher and her leadership at the University of Alabama-Birmingham put her at the very forefront of dental medicine today," said Penn Provost Robert Barchi at the time of her selection. "Her strong credentials and her vision for the future of dental medicine and dental education make her an ideal candidate to lead Penn's dental school forward as it continues to enhance and develop its leadership in research and education."
Dr. Jeffcoat is a past president of both the American Association for Dental Research and the International Association for Dental Research. A graduate of the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, she also taught periodontology there for 10 years.
Francis E. Johnston is a biological anthropologist and Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. He received the BA and MSc degrees in Anthropology from the University of Kentucky and the PhD, also in Anthropology, from the University of Pennsylvania. He was Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Penn from 1962-68 (where he was granted academic tenure), Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin from 1968-71, and Professor at Temple University from 1971-73. Since then he has been at the University of Pennsylvania, where he served as Chair of the Department of Anthropology from 1982-94.
Johnston has been an Overseas Fellow of Churchill College, University of Cambridge (1994-95 and 2000). He has been a postdoctoral Fellow at the Institute of Child Health, University of London (1966-67, 1988-89) and the Institute of Cancer Research, Philadelphia (1967-68), Visiting Fellow of the Department of Anthropology, University College, London, (1988-89) and Visiting Professor of Human Biology at the University of Cape Town (1989).
Johnston's research specialization is in the growth and development of children, especially in relation to nutritional status and health. He has worked extensively throughout Latin America, especially Guatemala (since 1966) but also in Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and Cuba. He has also been involved in the study of the health effects of modernization in Papua New Guinea. In 1982 he was the Gallagher Lecturer of the Society For Adolescent Medicine and in 1986 he received the award as author of the best article appearing that year in the Journal of Adolescent Medicine.
Since 1990, Johnston has been active in academically-based community service initiatives in West Philadelphia. He founded and directs the Urban Nutrition Initiative. He is a Distinguished Fellow of the University of Pennsylvania Center For Community Partnerships as well as co-Chair of its Faculty Advisory Committee. He is also a member of the U. of Pennsylvania Medical School Council on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and the Councils Special Task Force on improving the health status of the West Philadelphia community.
Johnston is a past-President of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1983-85) and has been Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1977-83), Human Biology (1987-88), and Founding Editor of the American Journal of Human Biology (1988-90). As Editor of the AJPA, he received in 1982 the award of the American Society of Scientific Publishers for editing the best issue of a scientific journal published that year in the USA. He has served as Consultant to the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the Pan American Health Organization. In 1998 he received Honorable Mention for the Ernest A. Lynton Award for Faculty Professional Service, given by the New England Resource Center for Higher Education. In April, 2003, Johnston received the Charles Darwin Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Johnston has taught extensively in both undergraduate and graduate curricula.
He has been supervised over 20 students who received their PhD's. He
is married and has three children. He served as a Naval Aviator in the
U.S. Marine Corps.
J. Sanford (Sandy) Schwartz, MD is Professor of Medicine and Health Management and Economics at the School of Medicine and The Wharton School, board certified internist and former Executive Director of the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, and co-Director of Penn's Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program. Dr. Schwartz is an internationally recognized clinically oriented health services researcher. He was the first recipient of the Samuel P. Martin Award for Excellence in Health Services Research and is an elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation. His research interests include the assessment of medical interventions and practices (with an emphasis on cost-quality tradeoffs), medical decision making and the diffusion and adoption of medical innovation. Dr. Schwartz was founding Director of the American College of Physicians Clinical Efficacy Assessment Project and President of both the American Federation for Medical Research (formerly AFCR) and the Society for Medical Decision Making. Dr. Schwartz was founding Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Managed Care and has served as Associate Editor of Journal of General Internal Medicine and on the editorial board of Medical Decision Making. Widely recognized as an outstanding mentor, almost all of the more than 40 fellows and junior faculty he has mentored are advancing successfully in their careers in academic medicine and government. He currently is mentor to 12 junior faculty, all but two of whom have career development awards and he directs or co-directs four institution-wide NIH-sponsored health services research and clinical epidemiology training grants. An outstanding teacher, he directs three school of medicine courses in clinical evaluative sciences and health care systems and has received four student teaching awards in the past five year. He has served in an a policy advisory capacity on national advisory committees for numerous governmental agencies and non-profit groups including the NIH, CDC, IOM, NAS, DOD, FDA, WHO, RWJF, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, John A. Hartford Foundation, AAMC and NCQA.Back to top
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