Political Apologies: Chronological List.

The following is a fairly comprehensive chronological listing of major political apologies and related events.

Updated: 01/23/03.

Graham G. Dodds, Ph.D. Candidate Political Science Department University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-6215 ------------------------------------

1077: Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV apologizes to Pope Gregory VII for church-state conflicts by standing barefoot in the snow for three days.

1697: One judge and twelve jurors apologize for the Salem witch trials of 1692, as the colony declares a day of fasting and prayer to atone for the injustices.

1711: Massachusetts compensates the families of the victims of the Salem witch prosecutions.

1863: Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation establishing Thanksgiving as a national holiday, enjoining the nation to repent for "our national perverseness and disobedience" to God during the Civil War and asking forgiveness for the sins that led to so many deaths.

August 2, 1894: Japan reportedly apologizes and offers to pay compensation to Great Britain for its cruiser Naniwa mistakenly firing upon and sinking the British ship Kow Shing. Japanese officials in London deny the report.

1919: Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles, admitting it was responsible for World War I and agreeing to pay reparations.

July 22, 1924: The Persian government apologizes for the death of U.S. Vice Consul Major Robert Imbrie, who was beaten to death by a mob in Teheran.

1927: In response to complaints from Jewish leaders and in order to avoid a lawsuit, automobile maker Henry Ford retracts and apologizes for an anti-Jewish campaign in his newspaper "The Dearborn Independent."

July 19, 1928: The U.S. government formally apologizes to Great Britain for violating the sovereignty of the Bahamas last year, when the Coast Guard seized a ship suspected of smuggling liquor.

September 1, 1937: The Chinese government apologies to the U.S. for bombing the American ship President Hoover and offers to pay reparations. The next day, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek adds his personal apologies to the formal apology of the Chinese government.

December 15, 1937: Japan apologizes for sinking the U.S. gunboat Panay.

October 26, 1948: Mexico accepts an apology from the U.S. State Department for recently allowing several thousand Mexican farm laborers to cross the Texas border, in violation of an agreement between the two countries.

May 26, 1950: Israel agrees to apologize to the United Nations for the murder of Palestinian mediator Count Folke Bernadotte in Jerusalem in 1948.

August 18, 1955: Indian Prime Minister Nehru apologizes and expresses deep regret to foreign missions and consulates in New Delhi that were attacked by Indian demonstrators and offers to pay full compensation for damage.

October 4, 1960: At the United Nations, Soviet Premier Khrushchev demands that the U.S. apologize for recent spying activity, which he termed "unprecedented treacherous acts," before there can be any improvement in Soviet-U.S. relations.

May 9, 1964: South Vietnam apologizes for its troops "unintentionally straying" into Cambodian territory yesterday during military action against the Communist forces.

March 18, 1965: The sheriff of Montgomery County, Alabama apologizes for routing 600 civil rights demonstrators with horses and clubs yesterday.

1965: In a declaration entitled "Nostra Aetate," the Second Vatican Council reverses the traditional condemnation of Jews as the murderers of Jesus.

1965: A joint statement issued by the foreign ministers of Japan and South Korea includes "twenty vague words of apology" for Japanıs 36-year colonial rule.

October 23, 1968: Egyptian Foreign Minister Mahmoud Riad demands that Israel apologize to Arab states for its "aggression" in 1967.

1968: The United States signs an apology prepared by North Korea, admitting that the U.S.S. Pueblo violated North Korean territorial waters. The admission gains the release of the captured U.S. crew but not the ship.

1970: At the site of the Warsaw ghetto, West German Chancellor Willy Brandt falls to his knees to express the guilt, sorrow, and responsibility of Germany for the Holocaust.

1972: Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka tells visiting Chinese Premier Chou En-lai that "Japan realizes her heavy responsibility in causing enormous damage to the Chinese people in the past through the war."

February 19, 1976: President Ford says the internment of Japanese Americans was "wrong" and officially revokes President Franklin Rooseveltıs exclusion order.

1977: Two years after the death of Gen. Francisco Franco, Spain grants an amnesty to his collaborators in order to help the divided nation heal and to facilitate the transition to democracy.

September 19, 1980. President Carter refuses to apologize to Iran in order to secure the release of American hostages.

October 30, 1981: The Soviet ambassador to Sweden conveys "unreserved formal regrets" to the Swedish foreign minister over a Soviet submarine that ran aground in Swedish territorial waters.

November 1, 1981: Sweden says that the Soviet apology regarding the stranded submarine is insufficient, but the submarine and its crew are released.

June, 1983: The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians recommends that Congress pass legislation providing an official apology and compensation to interned Japanese Americans.

August, 1983: The United States formally apologizes to France for having helped Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie escape to Bolivia to avoid prosecution after World War II.

September 3, 1983: South Korea demands that the Soviet Union apologize and provide reparations for shooting down Korean Air Lines flight 007 on September 1, killing all 240 passengers and 29 crew members on board.

July 17, 1984: At the Democratic National Convention, Jesse Jackson asks Jews for forgiveness for insensitive remarks.

September 7, 1984: Alluding to World War II, Japanese Emperor Hirohito tells the visiting South Korean President that "it is regrettable that there was an unfortunate period in this century."

May 8, 1985: In a speech to Parliament, West German President Richard von Weizsacker stresses the importance of remembering, guilt, and reconciliation.

October 23, 1985: In an address to the United Nations, Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone apologizes for Japanıs role in World War II.

November 18, 1985: Philadelphia Mayor W. Wilson Goode apologizes for the Move disaster that left 11 people dead, 61 houses destroyed by fire, and 250 people homeless.

August 17, 1986: The United Church of Canada officially apologizes to Canadaıs native peoples for past wrongs inflicted by the church.

July 3, 1988: President Reagan expresses regret to Iran over the U.S. downing of an Iranian passenger jet over the Persian Gulf that killed all 290 persons aboard.

May, 1988: At a summit conference in Moscow, Soviet Defense Minister Dmitri Yazov apologizes to U.S. Defense Secretary Frank Carlucci for the shooting death of U.S. Major Arthur Nicholson by a Soviet sentry in 1985 in East Germany.

August 10, 1988: The Civil Liberties Act apologizes on behalf of the people of the U.S. for the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. The Act also authorizes $1.2 billion for payments of $20,000 to each of the roughly 60,000 internees still alive and for the establishment of a $50 million foundation to promote the cultural and historical concerns of Japanese Americans.

August 18, 1988: Canadaıs All-Native Circle Conference officially acknowledges but does not accept the August, 1986 apology from the United Church of Canada for past wrongs inflicted on them.

February 18, 1989: Iranian president Hojatolislam Ali Khamenei says that the death threat for author Salman Rushdie could be lifted if Rushdie were to apologize for his book "The Satanic Verses."

December 31, 1989: The U.S. apologizes to Nicaragua for the search of the Nicaraguan ambassadorıs residence in Panama City by American troops.

April 13, 1990: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev admits the Soviet Union was responsible for the 1940 massacre of Polish POWs at the Katyn forest.

April 13, 1990: After 40 years of denial, the new East German parliament issues an apology for Nazi crimes and says it is willing to pay reparations and to seek ties with Israel.

May 5, 1990: Ohio Governor Richard F. Celeste apologizes for the 1970 Kent State shootings. (Celeste took office twelve years after the shootings.)

May 27, 1990: South Korean leader Roh Tae Woo accepts Japanese Emperor Akihitoıs words of regret for the occupation of Korea from 1910 to 1945.

August, 1991: The mayor of Honolulu invites Japanese officials to a ceremony to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, but on the condition that they apologize for the war. The Japanese spokesman Ishihara Nobuo refuses, saying "the entire world is responsible for the war."

December 1, 1991: President Bush refuses to apologize for the use of atomic bombs in World War II.

December 4, 1991: Japanese Foreign Minister Michio Watanabe expresses "deep remorse" for the wartime suffering that followed Japanıs attack on Pearl Harbor.

December 7, 1991: On the 50th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, the Japanese parliament considers apologizing for the attack but decides not to do so.

January 18, 1992: Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa apologizes for Japanıs use of "comfort women."

July, 1992: On the 50th anniversary of the roundup of Parisian Jews, French President Francois Miterand refuses to apologize for French complicity in the persecution of Jews.

October 23, 1992: During a royal visit to China, Japanese Emperor Akihito expresses his sorrow for Japanıs wartime abuses.

October 31, 1992: The Catholic Church begs pardon for placing Galileo Galilei under life-long house arrest in 1633.

November, 1992: Russian President Boris Yeltsin apologizes for the Soviet downing of a Korean Airlines jet with 269 people aboard in 1983.

December, 1992: Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating acknowledges wrongs done to Aborigines.

August 9, 1993: Pope John Paul II apologizes for Catholic involvement with the African slave trade.

August 10, 1993: Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa declares that World War II was a mistake and an act of aggression.

August 23, 1993: Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa uses his first parliamentary policy address to convey "a feeling of deep remorse and apologies for the fact that our countryıs past acts of aggression and colonial rule caused unbearable suffering and sorrow for so many people."

August 29, 1993: South African President F.W. de Klerk apologizes for apartheid.

August 31, 1993: Nelson Mandela apologizes for atrocities allegedly committed by the African National Congress against suspected enemies.

September 20, 1993: Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa apologizes for suffering caused by Japan in World War II.

October 12, 1993: Russian President Boris Yeltsin apologizes for the internment of 600,000 Japanese POWs in Siberia after World War II.

November 6, 1993: In South Korea, Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa apologizes to South Korean President Kim Young Sam for Japanıs wartime actions.

November 15, 1993: The U.S. House passes U.S. Public Law 103-150: "To acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the January 17, 1893 [sic] of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and to offer an apology to native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii."

April 23, 1994: First Lady Hillary Clinton apologizes for confusion in her responses to questions about the Whitewater scandal.

April, 1994: 800 German Christians apologize to the Dutch for the Nazi invasion of the Netherlands in World War II.

August 15, 1994: Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama apologizes for the suffering caused by Imperial Japan and concedes that other Asians suffered "tragic sacrifices beyond description."

August, 1994: German President Roman Herzog asks the Polish people for forgiveness for the "inordinate suffering" inflicted on their country during World War II.

Summer, 1994: Leftist historian Eugene Genovese argues in the journal Dissent that the American left should apologize for its complicity in immoral acts committed by communism.

November, 1994: The Catholic Church announces a commitment "to repent of past ecclesiastical sins as prelude to the celebration of Christianityıs third millennium. ŒIt is time,ı John Paul says, Œto examine the past with courage, to assign responsibility where it is due in a review of the long history of humanity.ı"

March 11, 1995: On the thirtieth anniversary of the Selma-to-Montgomery civil rights march, former Alabama Governor George Wallace apologizes to civil rights advocates for resisting desegregation.

March, 1995: Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas asks the Israeli Knesset for forgiveness for Lithuaniaıs deeds in the Holocaust.

March, 1995: The Jesuitsı general congregation apologizes for abetting "male domination" and pledged "solidarity with women." (Cf. Pope John Paul IIıs letter on 7/10/95.)

April, 1995: President Clinton says, "the United States owes no apology to Japan for having dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki."

May, 1995: Pope John Paul II begs forgiveness in the Czech Republic for the Churchıs role in stake burnings and the religious wars that followed the Protestant Reformation.

May, 1995: St. Petersburg, Russia unveils a monument to the millions of victims of Stalin and others during the Soviet regime. The monument consists of two sphinxes, situated across from the former KGB building where many political prisoners were taken for interrogation.

June 9, 1995: The lower house of the Japanese Diet expresses "deep remorse" for the suffering inflicted on Asians and others in World War II.

June, 1995: The Southern Baptist convention apologizes to African-Americans "for defending slavery in the antebellum South and for condoning Œracism in our lifetime.ı"

June, 1995: Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama says, "I would like to say that Japan is deeply remorseful for its past and strives for world peace."

July 10, 1995: In an open letter addressed to "every woman," Pope John Paul II apologizes for the Churchıs stance against womenıs rights and for the historical denigration of women.

July, 1995: Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama apologizes to the roughly 200,000 women who were put into brothels by Japanese forces to serve as sex slaves or "comfort women" and sets up a private "Asian Womenıs Fund" to deal with reparations. The fund is "an expression on the part of the people of Japan to these women."

July, 1995: On the 53rd anniversary of the roundup of 13,000 Parisian Jews, French President Jacques Chirac apologizes for the help the Vichy government gave the Nazis in deporting 320,000 French Jews to death camps. (Cf. Miterandıs refusal to apologize in July, 1992.)

August 15, 1995: On the 50th anniversary of Japanıs surrender, Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama issues a statement of "heartfelt apologies" for Japanıs aggression. On the same date as Murayamaıs statement, the National Diet adopts a "Resolution to Renew the Determination for Peace on the Basis of Lessons Learned from History."

August, 1995: The Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission issues a report recommending an apology and reparations for the Australian governmentıs policy of forcibly removing mixed-blood children from aboriginal families between 1910 and 1970.

November, 1995: Queen Elizabeth II approves legislation which "apologizes unreservedly" to New Zealand Maori for taking their land in 1863. The legislation included a payment of $112 million and the return of 39,000 acres to the Tainui people.

1995: The International Red Cross apologizes for its "moral failure" in not denouncing Nazi atrocities in World War II.

1995: On the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II, Swiss president Kaspar Villiger apologizes for Switzerlandıs refusal to accept refugees during the war.

August, 1996: Former South African president F.W. de Klerk apologizes to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission for the "many unacceptable things that occurred during the government of his National Party."

September 23, 1996: President Clinton apologizes to seven undecorated, heroic African-American World War II soldiers.

December, 1996: Energy Secretary Hazel OıLeary apologizes to the last survivor and announces a $4.8 million settlement for the families of 11 other citizens injected with radiation for experiments on radiation exposure between 1944 and 1974.

December, 1996: Japanese Prime Minister Ryutara Hashimoto offers a letter of apology and monetary reparations to 500 survivors of the 200,000 "comfort women," but only six accept.

January 15, 1997: Swiss President Jean-Pascal Delamuraz apologizes for deriding as "blackmailers" the Jewish organizations seeking compensation for Holocaust survivors whose assets were held by Swiss banks.

January 22, 1997: In a joint declaration, foreign ministers from Germany and the Czech Republic apologize to each other for conflicts in the 1930s and 1940s.

January, 1997: North Korea issues a rare apology to South Korea, "expressing deep regret" for the lives lost when its spy submarine ran aground in South Korea in September, 1996 and its soldiers killed three civilians while trying to return home before being killed themselves. In response, South Korea returns the bodies of the North Korean soldiers.

April, 1997: Imprisoned leaders of the marxist New Jewel Movement (NJM), which ruled Grenada from 1979 to 1983, issue a letter apologizing for their regimeıs acts, especially the killing of Prime Minister Maurice Bishop.

May 16, 1997: President Clinton holds a White House ceremony to apologize for the 48-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study by the U.S. Public Health Service that withheld medical treatment of the disease. Five of the eight remaining survivors of the study attended the White House ceremony. (In 1974, the U.S. government settled a suit by the survivors for $10 million.)

June, 1997: British Prime Minister Tony Blair expresses regret for English indifference to the plight of the Irish people during the Potato Famine of the 1840s.

September 6, 1997: At the conclusion of Senate Finance committee hearings on Internal Revenue Service abuses, Acting IRS Commissioner Michael P. Dolan issues a public apology to four taxpayers (and by extension to all American taxpayers) for mistreatment at the hands of agency officials.

September 25, 1997: Ehud Barak asks forgiveness from Israelis of Middle-Eastern and North-African origin and seeks "their forgiveness" for what the "Labor Party had done to them" as immigrants to Israel during the 1950s.

September 30, 1997: The French Roman Catholic Church apologizes for its role during the Holocaust and its silence during 1940 Vichy regime.

October 2, 1997: Indonesian President Suharto apologizes for the forest fires that caused pollution over much of southeast Asia.

November, 1997: Russian President Boris Yeltsin apologizes for the mistakes of the Bolshevik Revolution, on its 80th anniversary.

January, 1998: The Canadian government formally apologizes for its historic mistreatment of indigenous peoples.

January, 1998: French President Jacques Chirac apologizes for the "judicial error" of the Dreyfus affair on the 100-year anniversary of Emile Zolaıs "J-accuse."

January, 1998: Japanese Prime Minister Ryutara Hashiomoto offers his "heartfelt apology" to the British government and expresses "Deep remorse" for Japanıs treatment of British POWs in World War II.

January, 1998: British Prime Minister Tony Blair apologizes for the 1972 "Bloody Sunday" massacre of 19 civilians in Northern Ireland.

February 20, 1998: The Anglican Church of Australia apologizes for its participation in the policy of forcibly removing aboriginal children from their mothers.

March 16, 1998: The Vatican apologizes for its silence and inaction during the Holocaust.

March 26, 1998: President Clinton apologizes for inaction during the 1994 Rwanda genocide.

March, 1998: In Uganda, President Clinton says that "European Americans received the fruits of the slave trade. And we were wrong in that."

April 22, 1998: South Korean President Kim Dae Woo announces that the South Korean government will end its efforts to gain official compensation from the Japanese government for "comfort women" but will still seek an official apology and will not prevent individuals from seeking compensation.

April 27, 1998: A Japanese court dismisses claims from Korean "comfort women" for an official apology and compensation, saying that even though the women had suffered greatly, the Japanese government was under no legal obligation to provide either an apology or compensation.

April 27, 1998: The German Parliament formally apologizes for bombing the Spanish village of Guernica on behalf of Gen. Francisco Franco on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War.

April, 1998: In the name of all New Yorkers, New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani apologizes to the family of Yankel Rosenbaum, a Hasidic man killed during the 1991 Crown Heights riots, and to the Hasidic community for the allegedly inadequate police response to the riots. In the course of the apology, Giuliani also criticizes the family of a child whose death in an automobile sparked the riots.

May, 1998: Japanese Emperor Akihito apologizes to Britain for World War II.

July, 1998: British Armed Forces Minister John Reid apologizes in the House of Commons for the deaths of 306 soldiers executed for cowardice in World War I. (Cf. 12/24/01.)

August, 1998: The "Real IRA," a splinter group of the Irish Republican Army opposed to Northern Irelandıs 1998 peace agreement, admits responsibility for a blast in Omagh that killed 28 people and injured 220 others but not for the casualties, which it blames on authorities that supposedly did not heed the groupıs warnings.

August, 1998: The Irish Republican Army apologizes for violence and killings in the course of its struggle for liberty and pledges to end its 23-year terror campaign. (Cf. July 17, 2002.)

October, 1998: Japanese Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi gives visiting South Korean President Kim Dae Jung a written statement saying that Japan "expressed deep remorse and extended a heartfelt apology" for inflicting "heavy damage and pain" on Koreans.

October, 1998: Argentinian President Carlos Menem expresses regret over the Falklands War.

November, 1998: The Catholic Priestsı Conference of India demands an apology from the Catholic Church for its association with colonial forces in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

November, 1998: Indonesian armed forces apologize in ads in local newspapers for killing a dozen demonstrators earlier in the month.

January 7, 1999: A U.S. federal judge approves a June, 1998 settlement between the U.S. government and Latin American Japanese World War II internees which will give then an official apology from President Clinton and reparations of $5,000 each.

January, 1999: Two former Khmer Rouge leaders, Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, apologize to the Cambodian people for the nearly two million people killed from 1975 to 1979. (Cf. 8/18/01.)

March 5, 1999: President Clinton apologizes for deaths at Italian ski resort caused by a U.S. jet striking a gondola cable.

March 10, 1999: President Clinton expresses remorse for U.S. support of right-wing governments in Guatemala that killed at least tens of thousands of rebels and Mayan Indians.

May 12, 1999: German Cancellor Gerhard Schroder meets with Chinese Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan and expresses an unconditional apology for NATOıs bombing of Chinaıs Belgrade Embassy, which killed three Chinese and journalists and injured 20 others.

March 14, 1999: Former Guatemala rebels apologize for atrocities committed during their 36-year civil war.

June 16, 1999: State Department Under Secretary Thomas Pickering apologizes in Beijing for the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

July 6, 1999: Iran asks the U.S. for an official apology to the Iranian government and nation for the July, 1988 downing of an Iranian passenger jet. (President Reagan expressed regret in 1988.)

July 16, 1999: After a "Reconciliation Walk" across Europe, several hundred members of a Christian group apologize to religious leaders in Jerusalem for the mass killings of Muslims, Jews, and Byzantine Christians 900 years ago during the Crusades.

July 28, 1999: South Africaıs Natal Law Society, the equivalent of the bar association, apologizes "unconditionally" for barring Mohandas Gandhi from practicing law in 1894 because of his race. David Randles, president of the Natal Law Society, made the apology to "all other aspirant lawyers whose access to the profession was restricted in any way on the basis of racial grounds."

August 27, 1999: Australian Prime Minister John Howard apologizes for past mistreatment of Aborigines. (Cf. 6/23/01.)

August 31, 1999: The Tokyo High Court upholds a lower courtıs ruling rejecting demands from 369 South Koreans for an official government apology and compensation. (Cf. April 27, 1998 court case.)

September 2, 1999: Pope John Paul II asks forgiveness for the past errors of the Catholic Church but did not specify any such errors.

September 3, 1999: Denmark Prime Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen apologizes for the way his country forced Greenland Inuits from their homes in 1953 to make room for an expansion of a U.S. airbase.

September 8, 1999: New York Archbishop John Cardinal OıConnor writes to his Jewish friends: "I ask this Yom Kippur that you understand my own abject sorrow for any member of the Catholic Church, high or low, including myself, who may have harmed you or your forbears in any way."

September 13, 1999: Libyan leader Col. Moammar Kadhafi says Americans and European powers should apologize and pay reparations to Africans for slavery.

September 15, 1999: Roman Catholic Church officials in Quebec announce that they will not apologize to aging "Duplessis Ophans" who suffered years of abuse while under the care of the church from the 1930s through the 1950s.

October 1, 1999: South Korean demonstrators demand that the U.S. apologize for American soldiers allegedly killing hundreds of civilians in 1950 at the start of the Korean War. (The U.S. refused to apologize on September 12, 2000.)

October 4, 1999: In an address to the Knesset, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak expresses sympathy and regret for the suffering of the Palestinian people but denies Israeli guilt or responsibility for the Israel-Palestine conflict.

November 9, 1999: The British government apologizes to Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe concerning a group of gay activists who attacked him in London to protest alleged human rights abuses in his country.

November 12, 1999: The Palestinian Authority apologizes for statements made by Suha Arafat in Ramallah during a meeting with U.S. first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton in Ramallah in which Ms. Arafat accused Israel of poisoning the air and polluting the water.

November 29, 1999: Gen. John Keane, the Army vice chief of staff, apologizes to the family of the late Edward A. Carter Jr., a World War II veteran, for secretly investigating him as a suspected communist and barring him from re-enlisting in 1949. The Army had determined the charges of disloyalty had no basis in fact, so the Army Board for Correction of Military Records corrected all of Carter's military records. His family is to be presented with three posthumous awards for Carter's conduct and service in Germany during World War II.

December 10, 1999: The Swiss government reiterates a 1995 apology over wrong doings during World War II, but refuses to offer compensation to Jewish refugees who were turned back at the Swiss border at that time.

December 11, 1999: At a hearing with federal officials in Honolulu, Native Hawaiians demand some form of redress for the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy by the U.S.

December 18, 1999: Pope John Paul II apologizes for the execution of religious reformer Jan Hus in 1415.

January 26, 2000: Leaders of the international Pagan community send a letter to Pope John Paul II calling for the inclusion of Pagans in the Vatican's upcoming millennial apology for the Inquisition.

February 5, 2000: An Oklahoma state commission (the Tulsa Race Riot Commission) recommends reparations for survivors of a 1921 race riot in Tulsa. (Cf. 3/1/01.)

February 14, 2000: Austrian politician Joerg Haider apologizes for giving offense by praising Hitler's employment policies and former members of the Waffen SS.

February 17, 2000: German President Johannes Rau apologizes before the Israeli parliament for the Holocaust.

February 28, 2000: A leader of the Lebanese Hezbollah demands that French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin apologize for calling guerrilla attacks against Israeli occupation troops as "terrorist" acts.

March 12, 2000: Pope John Paul II asks forgiveness for the sins of Catholics throughout the ages. During a public Mass of Pardon, the Pope says that "Christians...have violated the rights of ethnic groups and peoples, and shown contempt for their cultures and religious traditions..."

March 22, 2000: The Netherlands apologizes to Jews, Gypsies and Indonesians for a "chilly" official response in the past to their claims to property seized during and after World War II. Prime Minister Wim Kok offers $180 million, in addition to past restitutions, to the Central Jewish Congress, while Gypsies receive an extra $13 million, and Indonesians who sided with the Dutch during Indonesia's fight for independence in 1949 are offered $110 million.

March, 2000: Aetna Inc. apologizes for profiting from slavery by issuing insurance policies on slaves in the 1850s.

April 7, 2000: The Austrian government apologizes for having provided a political haven to former Nazis after World War II.

April 8, 2000: Belgium asks forgiveness for the international communityıs failure to prevent genocide in Rwanda in 1994.

April 15, 2000: Bishop John S. Cummins and other leaders of the Diocese of Oakland publicly apologize to victims of clergy sexual abuse.

April 18, 2000: The official Vatican newspaper rejects a call by gay-rights activists for an apology from the Catholic Church. (Homosexuals were not included in the Popeıs March 12 request for forgiveness for past wrongs committed by Catholics.)

May 19 (and also late August), 2000: Thousands of Chinese men sue Japanese companies for using them as forced laborers during World War II and demand an apology.

June 25, 2000: Montenegro President Milo Djukanovic asks Croatia to forgive his countrymen for shelling Dubrovnik during the Croatian struggle for independence in 1991.

July 4, 2000: The Hartford Courant newspaper apologizes for having published advertisements for the sale of slaves in the 18th and 19th centuries.

July 14, 2000: Thomas Foley, U.S. Ambassador to Japan, and Lt.- Gen. Earl Hailston, the highest ranking American officer in Japan, apologize to Okinawa Governor Inamine Keiichi for crimes committed by U.S. military personnel in Japan.

July 19, 2000: Italyıs potential crown prince, Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia, offers to apologize for the wrongs committed by the Savoys, in an effort to circumvent a 1946 law banning male members from Italyıs former royal family from entering the country.

July 24, 2000: In an effort to reduce political tension, Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid apologizes for dismissing two ministers in May.

August 24, 2000: Russian President Vladimir Putin expresses a "great feeling of guilt and responsibility" for the Kursk submarine accident, in which all 118 sailors aboard died, essentially apologizing for the way the tragedy was handled.

August 25, 2000: Zimbabwe war veterans accept a government apology for the destruction of their homes in the course of police raids on illegally occupied property.

August, 2000: Former Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser calls for a national apology for the "stolen generations," the one in ten Aboriginal children who were removed from their families between 1920 and 1971 in a government effort to "civilize" them by assimilation into white society.

September 5, 2000: Canadaıs Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, and United churches apologize to Eskimos and Indians for decades of abuse by white church officials.

September 8, 2000: During a celebration of the Bureau of Indian Affairsı 175th year anniversary, Interior Department assistant secretary Kevin Gover apologizes on behalf of the bureau to American Indians for its past actions, including the forced relocation of Indians and broken treaties and promises.

September 8, 2000: Secretary of State Madeleine Albright sends a letter of apology to North Korean Foreign Minister Paek Nam Sun, expressing America's regret that North Korea's second in command, Kim Yong Nam, canceled plans of the 15 member North Korean delegation to attend a summit of 160 world leaders in New York after being asked to be searched in the Frankfurt airport.

September 14, 2000: U.S. district Judge James A. Parker apologizes to Wen Ho Lee, an Chinese-American nuclear scientist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory who was held for nine months on suspicion of giving secrets to China before the governmentıs controversial case against him unraveled.

September 16, 2000: Fifteen women announce plans for a class-action lawsuit against Japan for being forced into brothels in World War II.

October 15, 2000: At a meeting in Tokyo, Chinese Prime Minister Zhu Rongji says China still feels that Japan has never properly apologized for its war atrocities but says it is Japanıs problem to decide whether and how to atone for its past.

November 6, 2000: China issues a statement saying it will not apologize to Cambodia for supporting the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979.

November 7, 2000: Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen of Finland apologizes to the Jewish community for the extradition of eight Jews to Germany in 1942.

November 10, 2000: The Movement for Democratic Change, a group opposed to Zimbabwe President Mugabe, asks him to publicly apologize to the people of Matabeleland and the Midlands (and to initiate an affirmative action program to benefit the two regions) for atrocities committed by state agents in the 1980s, when 20,000 civilians were killed in the course of an army crackdown on armed rebels.

December 9, 2000: The Israeli Army apologizes to American freelance photographer Yola Monakhov, who was shot by an Israeli soldier in Bethlehem in November. The army says the shooter and his commanders will be punished for violating the army's standing prohibition against using live ammunition except when facing immediate mortal danger.

December 15, 2000: Afrikaner academics and professionals, calling themselves the Group of 63, distance themselves from the call for South Africa whites to apologize for apartheid. The group says that while South Africa needs a political solution to its racial problems, personalizing the problem by seeking an apology is not appropriate.

December 22, 2000: The Clinton administration decides not to issue a formal apology to South Korea regarding the shooting of civilians at No Gun Ri in the Korean War. (Korean demonstrators demanded an apology in October, 1999.)

December, 2000: Harvard University apologizes for dismissing Professor Raymond Ginger in 1954, when he would not say whether he was a member of the Communist Party.

February 3, 2001: Armenian President Robert Kocharyan says he wants only an apology and not necessarily compensation from Turkey for the genocide of Armenians by Ottoman Turks in 1915.

February 10, 2001: Secretary of State Colin Powell apologizes by telephone to Japanese Foreign Minister Yohei Kono after the U.S. submarine Greenvilleıs collision with a Japanese fishing boat off Hawaii. (Cf. 4/4/01.)

February 19, 2001: President Robert Mugabe's information and publicity minister says Zimbabwe owes no one an apology for deporting two foreign journalists.

February 22, 2001: U.S. Ambassador Thomas Foley apologizes to the Emperor and Empress of Japan for the submarine Greenvilleıs collision with a Japanese fishing boat.

February 28, 2001: Admiral William Fallon apologizes for the collision of the submarine Greenville with a Japanese fishing boat.

March 1, 2001: The Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riots of 1921 recommends that reparations be paid to survivors. (Cf. 2/5/00.)

March 19, 2001: Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Kuwait's first deputy prime minister and foreign minister, asks Iraq to apologize to Kuwait before the two countries talk about reconciliation.

April 4, 2001: Secretary of State Colin Powell refuses to apologize to China for the collision of a U.S. spy plane with a Chinese fighter jet, saying "there is nothing to apologize for." (Cf. 2/10/01.)

April 4, 2001: Chinese President Jiang Zemin demands that the United States apologize for the collision between a U.S. Navy spy jet and a Chinese fighter jet.

April 11, 2001: The U.S. sends China a formal statement of regret over the midair collision between a US intelligence plane and a Chinese fighter jet, but the Bush administration insists "there is no apology."

May 24, 2001: Japan apologizes for forcing lepers to live in isolation decades after cures were available and agrees to pay $15 million to plaintiffs who successfully challenged laws that isolated them.

May 28, 2001: The Roman Catholic Church of Poland apologizes for complicity in the killing of 1,6000 Jews in Jedwabne during World War II.

June 7, 2001: The head of Germanyıs premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, apologizes on behalf of its forerunner, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, some of whose scientists were implicated in medical experiments at concentration camps during the Nazi era.

June 23, 2001: Australian Prime Minister John Howard says he is personally sorry for mistreatment of Aborigines but opposes a formal national apology because it could encourage claims for compensation. (Cf. 8/27/99.)

July 4, 2001: Russiaıs Duma passes a resolution calling on the president "to apologize on the state's behalf to ethnic Germans in Russia who, in the years of reprisals, lived in the USSR territory, met with arbitrariness, were forcibly resettled and restricted in rights for many years."

July 12, 2001: The Palestinian Authority asks Israel for an apology and compensation for houses in the southern Gaza Strip and near Jerusalem that were demolished by Israeli troops.

August 18, 2001: Former Khmer Rouge leader Khieu Samphan apologizes for the loss of life between 1975 and 1979 but denies having knowledge of atrocities, saying "My mistake was that I was too naïve and was out of touch with the real situation." (Cf. January, 1999.)

September 9, 2001: Indonesia president Megawati Sukarnoputri visits the troubled province of Aceh and says she is sorry for mistakes by past governments in the region's separatist war that has left thousands dead.

September 18, 2001: After being criticized by the White House and Pat Robertson, the Rev. Jerry Falwell apologizes for saying on Robertsonıs television show "The 700 Club" that God had allowed terrorists to attack America on September 11 because of civil liberties groups, abortion rights supporters, and feminists.

September 27, 2001: The leaders of the Myoshin-ji sect of Zen Buddhism apologize in Japan for their religionıs past ties to militarism. The leaders acknowledge that their apology is largely motivated by Brian Victoriaıs 1997 book "Zen at War," which details the relationship between Zen leaders and the Japanese military in World War II.

September 22, 2001: South African Xhosa prince Xhanti Sigcawu calls for direct talks with Queen Elizabeth to clarify her statements about expressing guilt and/or formally apologizing for colonizing Africa.

October 3, 2001: Human rights leaders in Nigeria demand a public apology from former military leaders for intermittently ousting democratically-elected governments from office.

October 8, 2001: Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi apologizes and expresses condolences in China for those Chinese who lost their lives in World War II.

November 22, 2001: Pope John Paul II issues an apology for sex abuse by priests. (Cf. 4/24/01.)

December 24, 2001: Canadaıs House of Commons apologizes for the execution of 23 Canadian soldiers by allied firing squads for desertion or cowardice in World War I, saying the punishment was too harsh. (The Canadians were among 306 Commonwealth soldiers shot for desertion between 1914 and 1918.) The apology does not erase their convictions . (Cf. July, 1998.)

January 8, 2002: President Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil demands that the U.S. apologize for remarks by Treasury Secretary Paul OıNeill, who called Brazilians corrupt.

January 9, 2002: Boston Cardinal Bernard Law offers a public apology "with heartfelt sorrow" to people abused by priests as children.

January 18, 2002: Russian Communist leader Gennadi Zyuganov says Moscow should not bow to Poland's wishes for an apology over the massacre of Polish officers by Soviet agents at Katyn during World War II.

February 6, 2002: Belgium apologizes for participating in the 1961 assassination of Patrice Lumumba, Congoıs first Prime Minister, and establishes a memorial fund to assist Congolese youth and democracy.

February 7, 2002: The Hausa community in Idi-Araba, Nigeria, apologizes to Governor Bola Tinubu for ethnic violence in which over 100 people were killed.

February 27, 2002: European Union official Chris Patten apologizes to the people of Zimbabwe for the imposition of sanctions on February 18.

March 13, 2002: The Malaysian cabinet accepts an apology from U.S. Time Magazine for an unflattering depiction of the country in its February 11 edition.

March 29, 2002: As part of a settlement of a lawsuit brought by 23 former altar boys who were molested by a priest, Oregon Archbishop John Vlazny issues a public apology to victims of sexual abuse.

April 24, 2002: Pope John Paul II apologizes to victims of sexual abuse by priests. (Cf. 11/22/01.)

April 29, 2002: Austria apologizes for a clinic at Am Spiegelgrund in which 789 mentally handicapped children were subjected to medical experiments and murder during the Nazi regime.

May 23, 2002: Japanıs Foreign Ministry asks the Chinese ambassador to apologize for Chinese police forcibly removing five North Korean asylum seekers from Japanıs consulate in northeast China on May 8.

May 29, 2002: Nigerian President Chief Olusegun Obasanjo apologizes to Nigerians for years of rights abuses by previous governments, on the occasion of the countryıs third anniversary of establishing democracy.

May 31, 2002: Former Milwaukee Archbishop Rembert G. Weakland apologizes for an inappropriate sexual realtionship in the 1970ıs.

June 5, 2002: Uruguay President Jorge Batlle apologizes to his Argentine counterpart, Eduardo Duhalde, for calling Argentina's politicians "a pack of thieves, from the first to the last."

June 20, 2002: The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) accepts a written apology from AOL Time Warner Vice Chairman Ted Turner for his comments in a London newspaper justifying Palestinian suicide bombers.

June 23, 2002: Los Angeles Cardinal Roger Mahony apologizes to church members for sexual abuses by priests and asks for forgiveness.

June 24, 2002: The Quebec National Assembly unanimously votes to ask the monarchy to admit responsibility for the deportation of Acadians in the 1750s and 1760s.

July 13, 2002: Iranian President Mohammad Khatami calls on the United States to apologize to the Iranian people for its "misdeeds in the past." (Cf. 7/3/88, 7/6/99.)

July 17, 2002: The Irish Republican Army apologizes for civilian deaths over its thirty year struggle to unite Northern Ireland with the Republic of Ireland. (Cf. August, 1998.)

August 12, 2002: Kevin Klose, president and chief executive officer of National Public Radio (NPR), apologizes for a story suggesting that the Traditional Values Coalition (TVC), a conservative group with 43,000 member churches, was linked to anthrax-laced letters sent to Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy.

August 15, 2002: Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi expresses regrets about Japanıs past aggression.

August 21, 2002: The Independent National Electoral Commission demands an apology from the leadership of the All Nigeria Peoples Party over the party's allegation that the commission was responsible for problems at its convention on July 27, 2002.

September, 2002: North Korean leader Kim Jong Il acknowledges that North Korean agents kidnapped Japanese civilians in order to assume their identities and apologizes for the deaths of eight of the victims.

September 13, 2002: Bishop Charles G. Palmer-Buckle Of Ghana apologizes on behalf of Africans for the part Africans themselves played in the slave trade.

September 21, 2002: German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder apologizes for remarks by German Justice Minister Herta Daubler-Gmelin that compared President George W. Bush's Iraq tactics to Hitler's tactics.

September 25, 2002: Senate leader Tom Daschle demands that President Bush apologize for suggesting that Senate Democrats care more about special interests than national security.

October 7, 2002: The German media company Bertelsmann expresses regret for its collaboration with the Nazi regime and notes that it has joined over 6,000 other German companies that have agreed to pay $4.5 billion to people who performed forced labor under the Nazis.

October 8, 2002: Dublin Archbishop Cardinal Desmond Connell apologizes to people who were sexually abused as children by Church officials.

October 14, 2002: The Rev. Jerry Falwell apologizes for calling the Prophet Muhammad a "terrorist" during a recent television interview. Muslim leaders welcome the apology.

October 27, 2002: Russian President Vladimir Putin apologizes on television to the families of dozens of hostages who died when special forces gassed the theater where they were being held by Chechen rebels.

October, 2002: A few days after receiving a hundred percent of the vote in a referendum on his leadership, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein issues a general pardon, freeing thousands of political prisoners.

November 8, 2002: After pleading guilty to murder, former members of the Symbionese Liberation Army apologize for a 1975 shooting in a California bank. The members were brought to trial after the victimıs family pressured prosecutors to proceed based on information in newspaper heiress Patricia Hearstıs 1982 book on the terrorists.

November 8, 2002: Abu Abbas, the leader of terrorist group responsible for hijacking the Achille Lauro ship in 1985, expresses regret but does not apologize for the killing of American Leon Klinghoffer.

November 16, 2002: A group representing Slovakiaıs surviving Jews asks Germany for compensation for deporting 57,000 Slovak Jews to Nazi death camps in 1942 with one-way tickets that were paid for with their own property. Germany refuses, contending that the Slovak state, not Nazi Germany, deported the Jews and that the Jews who died did not appoint the current Jewish community to collect damages.

November 28, 2002: Amer Aziz, a Pakistani surgeon, claims that he received an apology from the F.B.I. and C.I.A. after being released from several weeks of secret detention and interrogation for suspected terrorist ties in Islamabad, Pakistan.

November 28, 2002: President Bush apologizes, via the U.S. ambassador in Seuol, for the deaths of two South Korean girls hit by a U.S. military vehicle in June.

December 7, 2002: Iraqi President Saddam Hussein apologizes for invading Kuwait in August, 1990.

December 10, 2002: Senator Trent Lott issues a written apology for a speech the week before, in which he praised Senator Strom Thurmondıs 1948 segregationist campaign for U.S. president. Democrats and others had called for the apology. Lott repeats his apology several times over the next several days, repeatedly appealing for "forbearance and forgiveness." He also expands his apology to include not only the remarks in question, but also various instances of past "misbehavior" and insensitivity with regard to racial issues.

December 11, 2002: Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage issues another official apology to South Korean President Kim Dae Jung for the deaths of two South Korean girls crushed by an American armored vehicle in June.

December 14, 2002: Boston archbishop Cardinal Bernard Law resigns, apologizes, and begs forgiveness for his mishandling of priests implicated in the Catholic Church sexual abuse scandal.

December 17, 2002: The Norwegian Parliament votes to compensate the estimated 12,000 children of German soldiers who occupied the country during World War II for discrimination they suffered growing up in Norway after the war.

December 30, 2002: Leaders of a rebel group in Ivory Coast apologize for firing on French troops near Duekoke.