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internationally known mathematicians. The traditional core areas of mathematics are well represented, as are developing areas; Penn is one of the world’s leading centers in the application of logic to theoretical computer science. This area considers the problem of proving that a computer program will perform its intended function correctly.
Mathematics majors enjoy a high degree of flexibility to pursue specialized mathematical subjects or to study how mathematics is used in other disciplines. Some mathematics majors interact with the graduate students and take several graduate mathematics courses. Others pursue double majors or dual degrees in other sciences, engineering or business. Still others work toward a career in mathematics education. This diversity is reflected in the variety of paths followed by the program’s majors after graduation: some go on to some of the nation’s best graduate schools in mathematics or other scientific disciplines, some to professional schools and others to work in the finance industry (where mathematical simulations of financial markets have become increasingly important), the insurance industry (as actuarial scientists), the computer industry (as hardware or software developers), government, other high-tech industries (communications, electronics, etc.) and the teaching profession.
Music
The Department of Music offers a flexible approach to the study of music. As a humanistic endeavor, music can serve as the central focus of a general liberal arts education. And for students who aspire to graduate training in music history, theory, ethnomusicology, American music or composition, the department also offers a more thorough introduction to the history and theory of music and to its meanings in different cultures around the world.
In addition to a broad array of courses, the department also enriches the intellectual life of the University community through its sponsorship of student performing ensembles, its MUSC 010 program of applied music for credit, its program of music lessons in the College Houses, and its presentation of both student and professional concerts.
Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
The programmatic foci of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations (NELC) are the civilizations of Mesopotamia/Iraq, Egypt, Israel, Syria, Arabia, Persia/Iran and Anatolia/Turkey. The undergraduate program offers broad-based, culturally integrated general education courses on Near Eastern literatures, history, cultures and thought. While NELC is committed to making these cultures accessible to non-specialists, it recognizes that the deepest understanding of any culture requires a profound knowledge of its language(s). Thus, the department offers courses in Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian, Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Persian and Turkish.
Students may major in Hebrew and Judaica, Arabic and Islamic Studies, Ancient Near Eastern Studies, and Hebrew and Arabic Studies. Students are strongly encouraged to begin language study while they explore the major through introductory courses that are taught in translation. For students majoring in other departments, NELC offers a double major, a minor and a language certificate in Hebrew and Arabic.
Philosophy
Philosophy seeks to illuminate fundamental aspects of the world, of our relation to and knowledge of the world, and of our own nature as rational, purposive and social beings. The study of philosophy aims at an appreciation of the ways this enterprise has been, is, and might be approached. Such approaches are many and varied. They differ not merely in the accounts they offer but, more importantly, in the questions they deem significant and the terms in which their answers are couched. A philosophical education is, in large measure, intended to furnish some grasp of what is involved in developing and defending questions and positions of a general and fundamental nature.
Philosophy is not then a practical subject; philosophical expertise does not especially suit one for any particular office or occupation. Nonetheless, a number of generally applicable intellectual skills and habits are cultivated through its study. A student of philosophy is practiced in the close reading of texts, in the extraction from them of positions and arguments, and in the construction and criticism of lines of reasoning. While the chief value of studying philosophy is intrinsic, the development of these skills helps equip one for any profession in which creative thought and critical discrimination are called for. The University of Pennsylvania’s philosophy majors have gone on to advanced study and careers in any number of areas, including medicine, business, journalism and government. A major in philosophy provides particularly good preparation for law school.
The Philosophy Department offers three majors:
 • A general major in philosophy.
 • A major in humanistic philosophy and
 • A major in philosophy and science.
Philosophy is divided into a number of areas—epistemology, philosophy of science, logic, metaphysics, moral and political philosophy, and aesthetics. None of these areas can be pursued in complete isolation from the others.
Philosophy, Politics and Economics
Philosophy, Politics and Economics is an interdisciplinary program involving faculty and courses from the Departments of Philosophy, Political Science and Economics and from the Law School. The program allows